2 February 2024

A cannabis grower in his plot, in Azila, Morocco, in September 2022.

From Mount Tidirhine, the highest peak in the Rif range in northern Morocco, the cannabis fields stretch to the horizon line. In this early spring, the land is bare, just plowed. Farmers are waiting for the rain to sow the seeds whose flowers will be harvested in August. From his house in Ketama, at an altitude of 1,700 meters, Abdellatif Adebibe overlooks the valley where iodine spray from the Mediterranean mingle with the scents of cedars. “We are here in the temple of kif”, presents the 70-year-old farmer, president of the Association for the development of the central Rif.

In this valley grows a local variety. “The indigenous plant, cultivated for centuries, he explains. Our ancestors crushed the seeds to make oil that cured skin diseases. They made fabric, ropes, baskets… Some smoked the dried flower mixed with tobacco in sebsi (blowjob). » The Rifains call it the “beldiya” (which comes from here, from “bled”), as opposed to imported hybrid varieties, “gauriya” (Western) or rumiya » (the foreigner), with a much higher rate of THC (main psychoactive molecule) and higher yields, but criticized for their ecological impact. Over the years, these varieties have invaded the Rif range, gradually supplanting the “beldiya”.

In 2021, Morocco, the world’s largest producer of cannabis resin according to the United Nations (UN) – with an estimated 55,000 hectares devoted to this crop – passed a law authorizing the use of the plant for medical purposes and industrial. A pride for Abdellatif Adebibe, who has traveled around the world to the UN platform to defend its legalization. And who is now observing the work in progress: “You mustn’t take the wrong road. We will have to rehabilitate the beldiya if we want to place the man and his land at the center of the project. »

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pakistana, mexican, khardala, critikal… All these modern hybrid varieties, imported from Europe and North America by intermediaries, appeared in the Rif in the early 2000s, according to Kenza Afsahi, a sociologist at the University of Bordeaux. At the time, European consumers were increasingly turning to products with a high THC content.. “The hybrids were partly about adapting to their changing taste, she explains, in a context of growing competition for Moroccan hashish on European markets. »

Repeated droughts

Ten years later, international drug seizures pointed to a paradox: while Morocco had markedly reduced its cannabis crops as part of a major conversion program – from 134,000 hectares in 2003 to 47,500 hectares in 2011, according to the UN Office on Drugs and Crime –, “The production of Moroccan resin had not decreased, however, with increased THC levels”, relates the geographer Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy. In 2015, he signed with Kenza Afsahi a study published by the French Observatory of Drugs and Addictive Tendencies (OFDT) revealing how these hybrids, with a yield two to three times higher than traditional kif, had been able to compensate for the reduction in surface area.

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The same study showed to what extent these new varieties upset the ecological balances of the region, already weakened by decades of intensive cannabis monoculture, at the cost of massive deforestation. Very water-intensive “they have forced farmers to invest in irrigation equipment and to drill ever deeper wells, because these hybrids cannot be cultivated without irrigation”, reports Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy. Unlike, according to him, the variety of countries, “cultivable in rainfed agriculture or in any case without massive recourse to irrigation”.

Abdellatif Adebibe, cannabis grower and president of the Association for the Development of Central Rif, in Ketama, Morocco.

As Morocco experiences repeated droughts, the researcher warns of the “ecological crisis” which threatens the Rif: “In addition to pollution and soil depletion long caused by large amounts of chemical inputs, these hybrids could now quickly deplete its water resources. In this context, the country variety is most likely to continue to be grown there. Otherwise, one day, the Rif will probably not even have the heart to survive. »

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On the road from Ketama to Chefchaouen, dozens of retention basins, illegal pumping, pipes that meander through valleys devoid of forests bear witness to this overexploitation. In Chefchaouen, a real “water war” declared herself “between farmers who drain large quantities into rivers and groundwater, and those who cannot afford it”, reports Saïd, 36, who owns a few plots on the heights of the city. ” Result, he said, peasants emigrate to the cities or abroad and rent their land. »

Towards a controlled designation of origin?

Saïd cultivates a third of critical, the latest variety in vogue, and two-thirds of beldiya. How to compare: “Critikal produces stems that are up to twice as large and therefore take longer to grow. It is harvested in October, it must be irrigated all summer. It also requires a lot of fertilizer, sells for less and is much worse for smoking. » According to him, “People are starting to regret cultivating critikal; even in the douars where only that is cultivated, some have abandoned it and come back to beldiya “.

But years of hybridization and uncontrolled crossbreeding have prompted Moroccan scientists to question the survival of the local variety. In 2021, the National Institute for Agronomic Research (INRA) launched a research program on the issue. Its goal : “Identify and characterize the local varieties known under the generic name of beldiyathat is to say, to know their DNA, their biochemical composition, their yield, their morphology, in order to register them in the official catalog of Moroccan varieties and preserve their genetic heritage”explains Mouad Chentouf, coordinator of this program, who, halfway through, says to himself ” confident “. According to him, the success of the legal cannabis sector depends on it: “For a sustainable and autonomous development of this sector, it is necessary to return to the local variety, adapted to the environment where it is cultivated. »

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Moroccan industrialists engaged in the manufacture of cannabis-based products have also started to defend this “heritage to save”, which appears to them as Morocco’s asset in a very competitive world market. Like the Pharma 5 laboratory, which, in a study published by the Moroccan media The Desk, highlights the quality of beldiya, its lower THC content, its unique smell and flavor… Until pleading for a controlled designation of origin (AOC), “a guarantee of superior quality and ecological and social responsibility, like France has its champagne or Japan its Kobe beef”.

A label “made in the Rif” ? “Made in Ketama”, prefers Abdellatif Adebibe, who defends a “organic, AOC, fair trade designation” in the “historic area of ​​kif”. On Mount Tidirhine, he is one of the farmers taking part in the INRA project. Below his house, he surrounded a plot whose harvest is reserved for his laboratories. And this ” in order to take the right direction, he said: “Restore the native plant’s value, promote the local development of the region, guarantee a future for its population. »

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